Perception at Stanford Research Institute
We present results of experiments suggesting the existence of one or more perceptual
modalities through which individuals obtain information about their environment,
although this information is not presented to any known sense. The literature
1-3 and our observations lead us to conclude that such abilities can be studied
under laboratory conditions.
We have investigated the ability of certain
people to describe graphical material or remote scenes shielded against ordinary
perception. In addition, we performed pilot studies to determine if electroencephalographic
(EEG) recordings might indicate perception of remote happenings even in the absence
of correct overt responses.
We concentrated on what we consider to be our
primary responsibility -- to resolve under conditions as unambiguous as possible
the basic issue of whether a certain class of paranormal perception phenomena
exists. So we conducted our experiments with sufficient control, utilising visual,
acoustic and electrical shielding, to ensure that all conventional paths of sensory
input were blocked. At all times we took measures to prevent sensory leakage and
to prevent deception, whether intentional or unintentional.
Our goal is not
just to catalogue interesting events, but to uncover patterns of cause-effect
relationships that lend themselves to analysis and hypothesis in the forms with
which we are familiar in scientific study. The results presented here constitute
a first step towards that goal; we have established under known conditions a data
base from which departures as a function of physical and psychological variables
can be studied in future work.
First, we conducted experiments with Mr. Uri
Geller in which we examined his ability, while located in an electrically shielded
room, to reproduce target pictures drawn by experimenters located at remote locations.
Second, we conducted double-blind experiments with Mr. Pat Price, in which we
measured his ability to describe remote outdoor scenes many miles from his physical
Finally, we conducted preliminary tests using EEGs, in which subjects
were asked to perceive whether a remote light was flashing, and to determine whether
a subject could perceive the presence of the light, even if only at a noncognitive
level of awareness.
In preliminary testing Geller apparently demonstrated
an ability to reproduce simple pictures (line drawings) which had been drawn and
placed in opaque sealed envelopes which he was not permitted to handle. But since
each of the targets was known to at least one experimenter in the room with Geller,
it was not possible on the basis of the preliminary testing to discriminate between
Geller's direct perception of envelope contents and perception through some mechanism
involving the experimenters, whether paranormal or subliminal.
So we examined
the phenomenon under conditions designed to eliminate all conventional information
channels, overt or subliminal. Geller was separated from both the target material
and anyone knowledgeable of the material, as in the experiments of ref. 4.
In the first part of the study a series of 13 separate drawing experiments were
carried out over 7 days. No experiments were deleted from the results presented
At the beginning of the experiment either Geller or the experimenters
entered a shielded room so that from that time forward Geller was at all times
visually, acoustically, and electrically shielded from personnel and material
at the target location. Only following Geller's isolation from the experimenters
was a target chosen and drawn, a procedure designed to eliminate pre-experiment
cueing. Furthermore, to eliminate the possibility of pre-experiment target forcing,
Geller was kept ignorant as to the identity of the person selecting the target
and as to the method of target selection. This was accomplished by the use of
three different techniques: (1) pseudo-random technique of opening a dictionary
arbitrarily and choosing the first word that could be drawn (Experiments 1-4);
(2) targets, blind to experimenters and subject, prepared independently by SRI
scientists outside the experimental group (following Geller's isolation) and provided
to the experimenters during the course of the experiment (Experiments 5-7, 11-13);
and (3) arbitrary selection from a target pool decided upon in advance of daily
experimentation and designed to provide data concerning information content for
use in testing specific hypotheses (Experiments 8-10). Geller's task was to reproduce
with pen on paper the line drawing generated at the target location. Following
a period of effort ranging from a few minutes to half an hour, Geller either passed
(when he did not feel confident) or indicated he was ready to submit a drawing
to the experimenters, in which case the drawing was collected before Geller was
permitted to see the target.
To prevent sensory cueing of the target information,
Experiments 1 through 10 were carried out using a shielded room in SRI's facility
for EEG research. The acoustic and visual isolation is provided by a double-walled
steel room, locked by means of an inner and outer door, each of which is secured
with a refrigerator-type locking mechanism. Following target selection when Geller
was inside the room, a one-way audio monitor, operating only from the inside to
the outside, was activated to monitor Geller during his efforts. The target picture
was never discussed by the experimenters after the picture was drawn and brought
near the shielded room. In our detailed examination of the shielded room and the
protocol used in these experiments, no sensory leakage has been found.
conditions and results for the 10 experiments carried out in the shielded room
are displayed in Table 1 and Fig. 1. All experiments except 4 and 5 were conducted
with Geller inside the shielded room. In Experiments 4 and 5, the procedure was
reversed. For those experiments in which Geller was inside the shielded room,
the target location was in an adjacent room at a distance of about 4 m, except
for Experiments 3 and 8, in which the target locations were, respectively, an
office at a distance of 475 m and a room at a distance of about 7 M,
was obtained in all experiments except Numbers 5-7. In Experiment 5, the person-to-person
link was eliminated by arranging for a scientist outside the usual experimental
group to draw a picture, lock it in the shielded room before Geller's arrival
at SRI, and leave the area. Geller was then led by the experimenters to the shielded
room and asked to draw the picture located inside the room. He said that he got
no clear impression and therefore did not submit a drawing. The elimination of
the person-to-person link was examined further in the second series of experiments
with this subject.
Experiments 6 and 7 were carried out while we attempted
to record Geller's EEG during his efforts to perceive the target pictures. The
target pictures were, respectively, a tree and an envelope. He found it difficult
to hold adequately still for good EEG records, said that he experienced difficulty
in getting impressions of the targets, and again submitted no drawings.
11 through 13 were carried out in SRI's Engineering Building, to make use of the
computer facilities available there. For these experiments, Geller was secured
in a double-walled, copper-screen Faraday cage 54 m down the hall and around the
corner from the computer room. The Faraday cage provides 120 dB attenuation for
plane wave radio frequency radiation over a range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz. For magnetic
fields the attenuation is 68 dB at 15 kHz and decreases to 3 dB at 60 Hz. Following
Geller's isolation, the targets for these experiments were chosen by computer
laboratory personnel not otherwise associated with either the experiment or Geller,
and the experimenters and subject were kept blind as to the contents of the target
For Experiment 11, a picture of a kite was drawn on the face of a cathode
ray tube display screen, driven by the computer's graphics programme. For Experiment
12, a picture of a church was drawn and stored in the memory of the computer.
In Experiment 13, the target drawing, an arrow through a heart (Fig. 2c), was
drawn on the face of the cathode ray tube and then the display intensity was turned
off so that no picture was visible.
To obtain an independent evaluation of
the correlation between target and response data, the experimenters submitted
the data for judging on a 'blind' basis by two SRI scientists who were not otherwise
associated with the research. For the 10 cases in which Geller provided a response,
the judges were asked to match the response data with the corresponding target
data (without replacement). In those cases in which Geller made more than one
drawing as his response to the target, all the drawings were combined as a set
for judging. The two judges each matched the target data to the response data
with no error. For either judge such a correspondence has an a priori
probability, under the null hypothesis of no information channel, of p
1/(10!) = 3 x 10 to the power -7.
A second series of experiments was carried
out to determine whether direct perception of envelope contents was possible without
some person knowing of the target picture.
One hundred target pictures of
everyday objects were drawn by an SRI artist and sealed by other SRI personnel
in double envelopes containing black cardboard. The hundred targets were divided
randomly into groups of 20 for use in each of the three days' experiments.
On each of the three days of these experiments, Geller passed. That is, he declined
to associate any envelope with a drawing that he made, expressing dissatisfaction
with the existence of such a large target pool. On each day he made approximately
12 recognisable drawings, which he felt were associated with the entire target
pool of 100. On each of the three days, two of his drawings could reasonably be
associated with two of the 20 daily targets. On the third day, two of his drawings
were very close replications of two of that day's target pictures. The drawings
resulting from this experiment do not depart significantly from what would be
expected by chance.
In a simpler experiment Geller was successful in obtaining
information under conditions in which no persons were knowledgeable of the target.
A double-blind experiment was performed in which a single 3/4 inch die was placed
in a 3 x 4 x 5 inch steel box. The box was then vigorously shaken by one of the
experimenters and placed on the table, a technique found in control runs to produce
a distribution of die faces differing nonsignificantly from chance. The orientation
of the die within the box was unknown to the experimenters at that time. Geller
would then write down which die face was uppermost. The target pool was known,
but the targets were individually prepared in a manner blind to all persons involved
in the experiment. This experiment was performed ten times, with Geller passing
twice and giving a response eight times. In the eight times in which he gave a
response, he was correct each time. The distribution of responses consisted of
three 2s, one 4, two 5s, and two 6s. The probability of this occurring by chance
is approximately one in 10 to the power 6.
In certain situations significant
information transmission can take place under shielded conditions. Factors which
appear to be important and therefore candidates for future investigation include
whether the subject knows the set of targets in the target pool, the actual number
of targets in the target pool at any given time, and whether the target is known
by any of the experimenters.
It has been widely reported that Geller has
demonstrated the ability to bend metal by paranormal means. Although metal bending
by Geller has been observed in our laboratory, we have not been able to combine
such observations with adequately controlled experiments to obtain data sufficient
to support the paranormal hypothesis.
A study by Osis 5 led us to determine
whether a subject could describe randomly chosen geographical sites located several
miles from the subject's position and demarcated by some appropriate means (remote
viewing). This experiment carried out with Price, a former California police commissioner
and city councilman, consisted of a series of double-blind, demonstration-of-ability
tests involving local targets in the San Francisco Bay area which could be documented
by several independent judges. We planned the experiment considering that natural
geographical places or man-made sites that have existed for a long time are more
potent targets for paranormal perception experiments than are artificial targets
prepared in the laboratory. This is based on subject opinions that the use of
artificial targets involves a 'trivialisation of the ability' as compared with
natural preexisting targets.
In each of nine experiments involving Price
as subject and SRI experimenters as a target demarcation team, a remote location
was chosen in a double-blind protocol. Price, who remained at SRI, was asked to
describe this remote location, as well as whatever activities might be going on
Several descriptions yielded significantly correct data pertaining
to and descriptive of the target location.
In the experiments a set of twelve
target locations clearly differentiated from each other and within 30 minutes
driving time from SRI had been chosen from a target-rich environment (more than
100 targets of the type used in the experimental series) prior to the experimental
series by an individual in SRI management, the director of the Information Science
and Engineering Division, not otherwise associated with the experiment. Both the
experimenters and the subject were kept blind as to the contents of the target
pool, which were used without replacement.
An experimenter was closeted with
Price at SRI to wait 30 minutes to begin the narrative description of the remote
location. The SRI locations from which the subject viewed the remote locations
consisted of an outdoor park (Experiments 1, 2),- the double-walled copper-screen
Faraday cage discussed earlier (Experiments 3, 4, and 6-9), and an office (Experiment
5). A second experimenter would then obtain a target location from the Division
Director from a set of traveling orders previously prepared and randomised by
the Director and kept under his control. The target demarcation team (two to four
SRI experimenters) then proceeded directly to the target by automobile without
communicating with the subject or experimenter remaining behind. Since the experimenter
remaining with the subject at SRI was in ignorance both as to the particular target
and as to the target pool, he was free to question Price to clarify his descriptions.
The demarcation team then remained at the target site for 30 minutes after the
30 minutes allotted for travel. During the observation period, the remote-viewing
subject would describe his impressions of the target site into a tape recorder.
A comparison was then made when the demarcation team returned.
to describe correctly buildings, docks, roads, gardens, and so on, including structural
materials, color, ambiance, and activity, sometimes in great detail, indicated
the functioning of a remote perceptual ability. But the descriptions contained
inaccuracies as well as correct statements. To obtain a numerical evaluation of
the accuracy of the remote viewing experiment, the experimental results were subjected
to independent judging on a blind basis by five SRI scientists who were not otherwise
associated with the research. The judges were asked to match the nine locations,
which they independently visited, against the typed manuscripts of the tape-recorded
narratives of the remote viewer. The transcripts were unlabelled and presented
in random order. The judges were asked to find a narrative which they would consider
the best match for each of the places they visited. A given narrative could be
assigned to more than one target location. A correct match requires that the transcript
of a given date be associated with the target, of that date. Table 2 shows the
distribution of the judges' choices.
Among all possible analyses, the most
conservative is a permutation analysis of the plurality vote of the judges' selections
assuming assignment without replacement, an approach independent of the number
of judges. By plurality vote, six of the nine descriptions and locations were
correctly matched. Under the null hypothesis (no remote viewing and a random selection
of descriptions without replacement), this outcome has an a priori probability
of p = 5.6 x 10 to the power -4 since, among all possible permutations
of the integers one through nine, the probability of six or more being in their
natural position in the list has that value. Therefore, although Price's descriptions
contain inaccuracies, the descriptions are sufficiently accurate to permit the
judges to differentiate among the various targets to the degree indicated.
An experiment was undertaken to determine whether a physiological measure such
as EEG activity could be used as an indicator of information transmission between
an isolated subject and a remote stimulus. We hypothesised that perception could
be indicated by such a measure even in the absence of verbal or other overt indicators.
It was assumed that the application of remote stimuli would result in
responses similar to those obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For
example, when normal subjects are stimulated with a flashing light, their EEG
typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a driving
of the brain waves at the frequency of the flashes 8. We hypothesised that if
we stimulated one subject in this manner ( a sender), the EEG of another subject
in a remote room with no flash present (a receiver), might show changes in alpha
(9-11 Hz) activity, and possibly EEG driving similar to that of the sender.
We informed our subject that at certain times a light was to be flashed in a sender's
eyes in a distant room, and if the subject perceived that event, consciously or
unconsciously, it might be evident from changes in his EEG output. The receiver
was seated in the visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded double-walled
steel room previously described. The sender was seated in a room about 7 m from
To find subjects who were responsive to such a remote stimulus,
we initially worked with four female and two male volunteer subjects, all of whom
believed that success in the experimental situation might be possible. These were
designated 'receivers'. The senders were either other subjects or the experimenters.
We decided beforehand to run one or two sessions of 36 trials each with each subject
in this selection procedure, and to do a more extensive study with any subject
whose results were positive.
A Grass PS-2 photostimulator placed about 1
m in front of the sender was used to present flash trains of 10 s duration. The
receiver's EEG activity from the occipital region (0z), referenced to linked mastoids,
was amplified with a Grass SP-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier with
a bandpass of 1-120 Hz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic tape with an Ampex
SP 300 recorder.
On each trial, a tone burst of fixed frequency was presented
to both sender and receiver, and was followed in one second by either a 10 s train
off lashes or a null flash interval presented to the sender. Thirty-six such trials
were given in an experimental session, consisting of 12 null trials - no flashes
following the tone - 12 trials of flashes at 6 f.p.s. and 12 trials of flashes
at 16 f.p.s., all randomly intermixed, determined by entries from a table of random
numbers. Each of the trials generated an 11-s EEG epoch. The last 4 s of the epoch
was selected for analysis to minimise the desynchronising action of the warning
cue. This 4-s segment was subjected to Fourier analysis on a LINC 8 computer.
Spectrum analyses gave no evidence of EEG driving in any receiver, although
in control runs the receivers did exhibit driving when physically stimulated with
the flashes. But of the six subjects studied initially, one subject (H. H.) showed
a consistent alpha blocking effect. We therefore undertook further study with
Data from seven sets of 36 trials each were collected from
this subject on three separate days. This comprises all the data collected to
date with this subject under the test conditions described above. The alpha band
was identified from average spectra, then scores of average power and peak power
were obtained from individual trials and subjected to statistical analysis,
Of our six subjects, H. H. had by far the most monochromatic EEG spectrum. Figure
3 shows an overlay of the three averaged spectra from one of this subject's 36-trial
runs, displaying changes in her alpha activity for the three stimulus conditions.
Mean values for the average power and peak power for each of the seven experimental
sets are given in Table 3. The power measures were less in the 16 f.p.s. case
than in the 0 f.p.s. in all seven peak power measures and in six out of seven
average power measures. Note also the reduced effect in the case in which the
subject was informed that no sender was present (Run 3). It seems that overall
alpha production was reduced for this run in conjunction with the subject's expressed
apprehension about conducting the experiment without a sender. This is in contrast
to the case (Run 7) in which the subject was not informed.
t approximation to the nonparametric randomisation test 9 was applied to the data
from all sets, which included two sessions in which the sender was removed. Average
power on trials associated with the occurrence of 16 f.p.s. was significantly
less than when there were no flashes t = 2.09, d.f. = 118, P < 0.04).
The second measure, peak power, was also significantly less in the 16 f. p. s.
conditions than in the null condition ( t = 2.16, d.f. = 118, P < 0.03). The
average response in the 6 f.p.s. condition was in the same direction as that associated
with 16 f.p.s., but the effect was not statistically significant.
analyses of control recordings made from saline with a 12 kOhm resistance in place
of the subject with and without the addition of a 10 Hz, 50 microvolt test signal
applied to the saline solution, revealed no indications of flash frequencies,
nor perturbations of the 10 Hz signal. These controls suggest that the results
were not due to system artifacts. Further tests also gave no evidence of radio
frequency energy associated with the stimulus.
Subjects were asked to indicate
their conscious assessment for each trial as to which stimulus was generated.
They made their guesses known to the experimenter via one-way telegraphic communication.
An analysis of these guesses has shown them to be at chance, indicating the absence
of any supraliminal cueing. So, arousal as evidenced by significant alpha blocking
occurred only at the noncognitive level of awareness.
We hypothesised that
the protocol described here may prove to be useful as a screening procedure for
latent remote perceptual ability in the general population.
From these experiments
we conclude that:
- A channel exists whereby information about a remote location
can be obtained by means of an as yet unidentified perceptual modality.
As with all biological systems, the information channel appears to be imperfect,
containing noise along with the signal.
- While a quantitative signal-to-noise
ratio in the information-theoretical sense cannot as yet be determined, the results
of our experiments indicate that the functioning is at the level of useful information
It may be that remote perceptual ability is widely distributed
in the general population, but because the perception is generally below an individuals
level of awareness, it is repressed or not noticed. For example, two of our subjects
(H.H. and P.P.) had not considered themselves to have unusual perceptual ability
before their participation in these experiments.
Our observation of the phenomena
leads us to conclude that experiments in the area of so-called paranormal phenomena
can be scientifically conducted, and it is our hope that other laboratories will
initiate additional research to attempt to replicate these findings.
research was sponsored by The Foundation for Parasensory Investigation, New York
City. We thank Mrs. Judith Skutch, Dr. Edgar D. Mitchell of the Institute of Noetic
Sciences - as well as our SRI associates, Mr. Bonnar Cox, Mr. Earle Jones and
Dr. Dean Brown - for support and encouragement. Constructive suggestions by Mrs.
Jean Mayo, Dr. Charles Tart, University of California, and Dr. Robert Ornstein
and Dr. David Galin of the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute are acknowledged.
Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory,
Stanford Research Institute,
Menlo Park, California 94025
1. Target pictures and responses drawn by Uri Geller under shielded conditions.
Fig 2. Computer drawings and responses
drawn by Uri Geller. a, Computer drawing stored on video display; b, computer
drawing stored in computer memory only; c, computer drawing stored on video display
with zero intensity.
Fig 3. Occipital EEG
spectra, 0-20 Hz, for one subject (H. H.) acting as receiver, showing amplitude
changes in the 9-11 Hz band as a function of strobe frequency. Three cases: 0,6,
and 16 f.p.s. (12 trial averages).
1 Pratt, J., Rhine, J.B.,
Stuart, C., and Greenwood, J., Extra Sensory Perception after Sixty Years
(Henry Holt, New York, 1940).
2 Soal, S., and Bateman, F., Modern Experiments
in Telepathy (Faber and Faber, London, 1954).
3 Vasilliev, L.L., Experiments
in Mental Suggestion (ISMI Publications, Hampshire, England, 1963).
Musso, J.R., and Granero, M., J. Parapsychology, 37, 13-37 (1973).
5 Osis, K., ASPR Newsletter, No. 14 (1972).
6 Tart, C.T., Physiological
Correlates of Psi Cognition, Int. J. Parapsychology, V, No. 4 (1963).
7 Dean, E.D., Int. J. Neuropsychiatry, 2 (1966).
8 Hill, D., and Parr,
G., Electroencephalography: A Symposium on its Various Aspects (Macmillan,
New York, 1963).
9 Siegel, S., Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioural
Sciences, pp. 152-156 (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956).
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GELLER LECTURING TO AMERICAN SENATORS Senator
Pete Domenici, Former Senator Alan Cranston CA)(deceased), Senator
Fritz Hollings (So. Carolina). Lower picture: Uri with Vice
President Al Gore, Yuli M. Vorontsov, First Deputy Foreign Minister
of the Soviet Union and Anthony Lake (then National Security
advisor, later head of the CIA), and Senator Claiborne Pell,
Chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Uri's
task was to mentally bombard Yuli Vorontsov and the group at
the Nuclear Arms Reduction Treaty Negotiations in Geneva, Switzerland,
to sign the nuclear treaty, which they did.
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